There are 2 ways of applying for a patent in other countries:
You may file a separate complete application in each country in which you decide to pursue the grant of a patent.
You may file a PCT application, and in due course nominate those countries in which you want to proceed to national phase.
It is not mandatory to file a PCT application.
You can file the application online at IP Australia’s website or download a paper application from that site. You can also engage a patent attorney to file the application for you.
You might consider filing a complete application in each relevant country, and forgo the PCT application step, for example, where:
you decide to pursue patents in a small number of countries only
some of the countries where you want to pursue a patent are not members of the PCT (some South American, Central American, African, and Middle Eastern countries).
Patent application process in other countries
In practice, you would consider applying for a patent in those countries where you anticipate:
selling the products or services protected by the patent
exporting the products or services protected by the patent
licensing the products or services protected by the patent.
The patent application process in other countries is much the same as in Australia: the application is examined to ensure that the requirements for a patent are met, third parties may oppose or object to the grant of a patent, and when the application is successful, the patent is granted.
Additional costs may be incurred for:
fees charged by the individual national patent offices
the fee for retaining a patent attorney /lawyer in the individual jurisdictions
a certified translation of the patent specification required in some non-English speaking countries.